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Diphyllobothriasis; parasite infection due to the fish tape worm Diphyllobothrium genus.


Overview:
Diphyllobothriasis is a parasite infection due to the fish tape worm (Cestode)  Diphyllobothrium genus,
commonly Diphyllobothrium latum which is called fish tape worm. This worm may reach to 15 meters in length.

Geographical distribution:
Diphyllobothriasis occurs in Africa (Uganda but not Egypt), Russia, Japan, China, North and South America, Canada, Central Europe, In those Countries, this disease is distributed, thus people there are infected by  Diphyllobothriasis.

Habitat:
The worms of Diphyllobothrium latum live in the small intestine of human.

Causes:
They are due to infection by plerocercoid larva which is the infective stage of Diphyllobothrium latum. The infection because ingestion of raw or undercooked fish contaminated with the infective larva (plerocercoid larva). Fish became infected due to transportation of  the infective larva from water flea (Cyclops) to fish.
The larvae attached to the mucosa lining of the small intestine and develop to the adult worm in 5-6 weeks.

Symptoms:
Most infections are asymptomatic but these symptoms may appear :
- Intestinal obstruction.
- Weight loss.
- Weakness.
- abdominal discomfort.
- diarrhea.
- vomiting.
- May cause macrolytic anemia.
- May cause nervous system disturbances due to vitamin B12 deficiency.
The worm has affinity to vitamin B12, and can absorb it.
- Migration of proglottids can cause cholecystitis or cholangitis.
Prevention:
- You should freeze or well cook fish before eating to kill the encysted fish tapeworm larvae.
- Proper disposal of the sewage as it must be treated.

Treatment:
Praziquantel 10 mg/kg body weight as single dose.
Niclosamide 2 g for adult and one gram for children.
Administration of Vitamin B12.

Diagnosis:
Eggs are oval operculated , thick shelled, immature and yellow which contains mature worms are detected by microscopic examination to the stool .
Diphyllobothriasis; parasite infection due to the fish tape worm Diphyllobothrium genus. Reviewed by Tpdsm on October 04, 2017 Rating: 5

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