Backgrounds

َads

Nephrolithiasis (Kideny stones or renal calculi)

Overview:
Nephrolithiasis is also known as kidney stones or renal calculi and characterized by the formation of crystalline material in the kidney and the urinary tract.
Symptoms:
The symptoms of Nephrolithiasis usually occur when the stones move within the kidney and passes through the ureter.
The symptoms include:
- Pain is the most common and initial symptom of kidney stones. The pain may be felt in the lower back and radiates to the sides, groin and the abdomen. The location and quality of pain are relative to the position on of the stone within the urinary tract while the severity is dependent on the degree of obstruction brought by the formation of kidney stones.
- Nausea After Eating and vomiting.
- Painful urination :is accompanied by a blood in the urine(Hematuria)
- Frequent urge to urinate is also noted and the urine while the characteristic of the urine can be noted with foul smells and cloudy appearance.
- Fever and chills may occur if infection is present during the process of kidney stones.

Causes:
-Nephrolithiasis has many causes and the stone formation results when the urine has more stone forming substances than fluid composition that the urine can dilute  .
There are different types of kidney stones that can form within the kidney and this includes the following:
1- Calcium stones: Calcium stones are the most common type of kidney stone that usually develop as a result of high intake or consumption of certain substances such as salt. Calcium stones are usually in the form of oxalate which is a substance that is naturally occurring in the food.
2- Struvite stones: Struvite stones commonly form in women suffering from urinary tract infection. The struvite stones grow rapidly and become large and manifested with few symptoms.
3- Uric acid stones: Uric acid stones potentially occur to individuals suffering from gout or went through chemotherapy. This is also potential for individuals who take in an insufficient amount of fluid and loses large amounts of fluid. This is also potential for individuals who include high protein in their diet.
4- Cystine stones: Cystine stones can develop in people with cystinuria or an inherited disorder marked by an elevation in the formation of stones in the bladder, kidney and the ureter.
Other causes of kidney stones include the following:
1- Dehydration: Dehydration from decreased fluid intake or from strenuous activities without sufficient fluid replacement can put one at risk for kidney stone formation.
2- Diet: Diet that includes high protein, sugar and sodium potentially increases the risk for kidney stone formation.
3- Digestive disorders: Due to changes in the digestive process that can affect the absorption of calcium and water and thus increasing the levels of stone forming substances in the urine.
4- Gout: This is potential for uric acid stone formation as the condition is generally the consequence of an increase in the amount of uric acid in the blood and urine.
5- Family history: This increases the risk for kidney stones including personal history of previously suffered from kidney stones.

Diagnosing:Tests involve:
1- Urinalysis: Urinalysis or Urine test requires a 24-hour urine collection for evaluation of stone forming minerals and a decreased in the levels of substances that inhibits the formation of stones.
2- Blood test: This is done to evaluate for calcium or uric acid content in the blood which can reveal an elevation in the levels of these substances.
3- Imaging tests: Imaging tests are done to confirm the formation of kidney stones. A helical CT scan is the imaging test of choice that is usually done without contrast materials. This imaging test can identify stones and obstruction within the urinary tract.

Treatment:
Most kidney stones usually resolve within 48 hours with sufficient amount of fluid intake to help wash away the stone through the urine. Small stones that have minimal symptoms can be treated with the following:
-Increase fluid intake
-Pain relieving medications
-Alpha blocker medication facilitates the passing of stone rapidly as the medication act by relaxing the muscles of the ureter
A large stone formation that leads to manifestation of symptoms can be treated with the following:
-Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is a procedure that utilizes sound waves to break the stones.
-Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a surgical removal procedure recommended for large stone formation.

Nephrolithiasis (Kideny stones or renal calculi) Reviewed by Tpdsm on September 05, 2017 Rating: 5

No comments:

Post a Comment

Social Share