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Fascioliasis is a parasitic infection caused by Fasciola spp.

Overview:
Fascioliasis is a parasitic infection caused by Fasciola spp. Which is two species:
- Fasciola hepatica (common liver fluke)  which is known as the sheep liver fluke.
- Fasciola gigantica: can infect people and cause Fascioliasis.

Geographic Distribution in the world:
Fasciola spp is found in all 5 continents, in more than 50 countries, especially where sheep or cattle are present.

Habitat:
In bile duct of human .

Causes:
People become infected when eat raw watercress or aquatic plants contaminated with encysted metacercaria (immature parasite larvae).
Encysted metacercaria migrate through the intestinal wall, the abdominal cavity, and the liver tissue, into the bile ducts, its habitat where they develop into mature adult flukes.
Adult flukes produce eggs in bile duct which cause the pathological effects in liver ( liver rot).
When cattle and sheep eat aquatic plants which are contaminated with immature parasite larvae, they reserve the parasite inside them without symptoms appear, but when human eat the meat of infected cattle or sheep, become infected with parasite.

Symptoms:
Presence of worms in bile duct cause inflammations right upper quadrant pain and fever.
May lead to thickening of biliary walls which cause fibrosis, hepatomegaly and liver cirrhosis.
Can cause obstruction jaundice due to obstruction of biliary ducts by worms in months or years.
May cause abscesses  and general toxemia , as a result of getting the worms out into blood circulation.
But in most cases Fascioliasis is asymptomatic.

Treatment:
Triclabendazole is effective against adult worms in the biliary ducts and immature one migrating through hepatic tissue (10mg/kg single oral dose or repeated after 12 hours).
2-dicholorophenol: 30-50mg/kg orally every other day for 10-15 days.

Prevention:
Not to eat raw aquatic vegetables or row sheep liver.
Safe water supply or boiling water before drinking.
Proper washing and cooking of pants and sheep liver.

Diagnosis:
By microscopic examination of eggs in stool (large operculated eggs with immature miracidium).
Fascioliasis is a parasitic infection caused by Fasciola spp. Reviewed by Tpdsm on September 20, 2017 Rating: 5

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