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Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Causes, symptoms and treatment

Overview:
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is considered  a bacterial infection that  affect the lungs,  and may spread to other organs so  it classified as a contagious bacterial infection.
Causes:
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a type of bacteria which known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis .  The primary TB is caused by breathing in air droplets from a cough or sneeze of  an infected person.
Other causes involves
·        people with a weaken immune systems due to diseases as AIDS, chemotherapy ….etc
·        If you are in frequent contact with people have TB disease.
·        Poor nutrition and environment .
·        Living in a crowded or unsanitary living condition.
·        Increase of  HIV infection.
Symptoms:
·        Symptoms include :
·        Cough and coughing up blood
·        Excessive sweating , especially at night.
·        Fatigue and Fever.
·        weight loss and Breathing difficulty
·        Chest pain.
Diagnosis:
Examination may show:
·        Fluid around the lungs .
·        Unusual breath sounds (crackles).
·        Clubbing of fingers or toes.
·        Enlarged lymph nodes in the neck or other areas.
Tests:
include:
·        Chest CT scan and Chest X-ray.
·        Bronchoscopy.
·        Thoracentesis .
·        Tuberculin skin test .
·        Sputum examination and cultures .
Treatment:
Treatment include a combination of drugs (may be four) that cure the infection and fight TB bacteria. This drugs are selected through a Lab test to detect the best one for treatment .  
The most commonly used drugs include:
·        Ethambutol.
·        Isoniazid .
·        Rifampin.
·        Pyrazinamide .
 Streptomycin…. Para-aminosalicylic acid….Amikacin…Moxifloxacin ….Ethionamide …. All this drugs may be used to treat TB.
 Prevention:
The prevention include having Skin Testing (PPD)for TB in high population , and in some countries  a BCG vaccination is applied  for people to prevent the TB.

Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Causes, symptoms and treatment Reviewed by Tpdsm on August 22, 2017 Rating: 5

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