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Hyperthyroidism (Graves disease); causes, symptoms and treatment

Overview:
Hyperthyroidism is a condition refers to Overactive thyroid in which the thyroid gland releases too much of its hormones (thyroid hormone)  ,
the thyroid gland is placed in front of the neck below the voice box and produces thyroxine(T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) that control the way of using energy for every cell in the body which called the metabolism  
Causes: 
The main cause of Hyperthyroidism is the releasing too much of thyroid hormone over a short (acute) or long (chronic) period of time.
 Other causes involve :
1- Getting too much iodine.
2-Graves disease (accounts for most cases of hyperthyroidism).
3-Inflammation (thyroiditis) of the thyroid due to viral infections or other causes.
4-Noncancerous tumors of the thyroid gland    .
 5-Taking large amounts of thyroid hormone.
6-Tumors of the testes or ovaries.
Symptoms:
- Difficulty concentrating.
- Fatigue.
- Frequent bowel movements.
- Goiter and thyroid nodules.
- Heat intolerance.
- Increased appetite.
- Increased sweating.
- Irregular menstrual periods in women.
- Nervousness.
- Restlessness.
- Weight loss (rarely, weight gain).

Other symptoms involve:
- Breast development in men.
- Clammy skin.
- Diarrhea.
- Hair loss.
- Hand tremor.
- Weakness.
- High blood pressure.
- Itching - overall.
- Lack of menstrual periods in women.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Pounding, rapid, or irregular pulse.
- Protruding eyes (exophthalmos).
- Rapid, forceful, or irregular heartbeat (palpitations).
- Skin blushing or flushing.
- Sleeping difficulty.
Exams and Tests :
Physical examination may indicate thyroid tremor, hyperactive reflexes, or an increased heart rate, Systolic blood pressure (the first number in a blood pressure reading) may be high and abnormal blood levels of thyroid hormones     .
Blood tests  to measure levels of thyroid hormones include :
- TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) level is usually low.
- T3 and free T4 levels are usually high.
This disease may also affect the results of the following tests:
- T3RU.
- Triglycerides.
- Vitamin B12 (in rare cases).
Treatment:
The treatment varies according to how the condition level is  and includes:
1-Antithyroid medications.
2- Radioactive iodine (which destroys the thyroid and stops the excess production of hormones).
3-Surgery to remove the thyroid, you will take pills to replace thyroid hormone for the rest of life   .
4- Beta-blockers are used to treat some symptoms as sweating, anxiety and rapid heart rate    .
Hyperthyroidism (Graves disease); causes, symptoms and treatment Reviewed by Tpdsm on August 25, 2017 Rating: 5

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