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Cholera (bacteria Vibrio Cholerae); causes, symptoms and treatment

Overview:
Cholera is an acute infection caused by a type of bacteria Vibrio Cholerae, that affects the small intestine and produces severe diarrhea.

Causes:
The main cause of cholera is bacterium Vibrio cholerae. That releases a toxin causing the increased release of water in the intestines, which produces severe diarrhea.

Other causes include:
Exposure to contaminated  drinking water or contaminated food.
Living in or traveling to areas of cholera as War, famine crowded poor sanitation places, and a shellfish which carry Vibrio bacteria.

Symptoms:
·        Abdominal cramps.
·        Dry mucus membranes or mouth.
·        Dry skin.
·        Excessive thirst.
·        Glassy or sunken eyes.
·        Lack of tears.
·        Lethargy.
·        Low urine output.
·        Nausea.
·        Rapid dehydration.
·        Rapid pulse (heart rate).
·        Sunken "soft spots" (fontanelles) in infants.
·        Unusual sleepiness or tiredness.
·        Vomiting.
·        Watery diarrhea that starts suddenly and has a "fishy" odor.
Note: Symptoms can vary from mild to severe.

Exams and Tests
Tests include:
·        Stool culture.
·        Blood culture

Treatment:
1-The objective of treatment is to replace fluid and electrolytes lost through diarrhea by using fluids given by mouth or through a vein (intravenous).
2- Antibiotics is given to shorten the time you feel ill.
3- The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed an international oral dehydration solution of sugar and electrolytes.   This solution is cheaper and easier to use than the typical intravenous fluid.
4- There are vaccines for travelers     .                                                                                                                                  
 Prevention
Prevention of cholera involves taking precautions with food and drinking water .

Cholera (bacteria Vibrio Cholerae); causes, symptoms and treatment Reviewed by Tpdsm on August 23, 2017 Rating: 5

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